Human Population Growth – slow impact – causes and solutions

The effect of Human Population Growth is becoming a serious problem nowadays. Solutions are more than welcome these days. Many organizations and individuals around the world are trying to find an appropriate solution in order to solve today’s most real problem. This blog-post is going to exhibit some arguments, causes and possible solutions to Human Population Growth. Individual’s views are also going to be included into this blog-post, such as Hans Rosling’s talk (TED Lectures) and other. The main idea is to expose reasons of solving Human Population Growth problem.

A hundred years ago, in the beginning of the 20th century the entire world population was less than 2 billion people.
Today the current world population has exceeded 6 billions.

World’s most populated countries are:

  1. China – 1,330,044,544
  2. India – 1,147,995,904
  3. United States – 303,824,640
  4. Indonesia – 237,512,352
  5. Brazil – 196,342,592

The Human Population Growth causes problems worldwide. It does not matter if it is a country or city in North, or South America, East or West Africa continent, Europe or Australia, all of the countries experience problems somehow. As an example, the Population Growth in China might cause problem to the world as a whole. The world is running out of food and fossil fuels reserves, and in a sense the population growth is the reason of it. As number of population increase as large the problems are. Therefore, a country of China brought into power a law to “ONE CHILD POLICY” that prohibit family having more than one baby, as well as prohibition to having a girl infant.

According to Cassandra’s views on the current situation we can state that these people are also called pessimists, catastrophists and doomsayers. Therefore, the main argument confirmed as one by Cassandra’s view is that growth in numbers of people and material consumption rates will inevitably lead to environmental and social catastrophe. As I mentioned above, the world is running out of food and fossil fuels day by day.

On the other side we have a group of people that assert the opposite. Cornucopian’s views are different than Cassandra’s. They

consider that human ingenuity and free markets will allow human species to adapt to any conceivable pressures caused by growth of the human activity. These people are recognized as optimists. This group of people believes that humans are able and will survive under any particular circumstances. The world has already found the way to continue to exist if the planet becomes overcrowded, the Cornucopian’s followers assert.

In my point of view, I must admit that I certainly follow the Cassandras view. I will also take a brief and simple example of how things work according to the Human Population Growth. We all live in a planet called Earth. Since the existence of the world the human being was supposed to feed in order to survive. Therefore, nowadays, as we all are aware world’s reserves tremendously expire, and our acknowledgment teaches us that no human being can survive without food and water.  I also included a picture of DRY EARTH which means that nothing can keep on growing without water as well.

The prediction from 1970’s made by Paul Ehrlich and the famous model equation IPAT which describes the Environmental Impact “I” then “P” population, “A” affluence and “T” technology.  This model identified the population growth in the early 1970s as the most important factor of Environmental Impact. Paul Ehrlich was one of the well known ecologist and prominent environmental thinkers at that time who wanted to inform the world of the overcrowded consequences of 20th century. The model of IPAT became important for examination of economical, environmental factors in many institutions.

Hans Rosling


Hans Rosling is Swedish medical doctor, professor and public speaker. He is born in 1948, and he was studying public health at St. John’s medical college. He also gives a lot of speeches and presentation for world on issues such as agriculture economic development etc. Today he is using Trendalayzer software to present today world situation.

He impress not only me but I thing everyone when he said that all countries in the world progress equal not only in economic view but also in population growth.

Partner name: Dejan Mitrev

References

http://geography.about.com/od/obtainpopulationdata/a/worldpopulation.htm

http://geography.about.com/cs/worldpopulation/a/mostpopulous.htm

http://geography.about.com/od/populationgeography/a/onechild.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Rosling

Increasing the cost of food.

The purpose of this assignment is to see how EF can be affected by different factors such as food distribution, gasoline, transportation.

Define what EF is?

“The amount of productive land appropriated on average by each person (in the world, a country, etc) for food, water, transport, housing, and other purposes is called EF.”

Briefly explain how food produced at distant places contribute to EF?

The food that is in distant places pass through long way to reach to the market to be sold. They are spending more time and also they are spending more gasoline then the producer that are producing in that neighborhood.

As food production became more industrialized during the 20th century, several trends emerged. One trend was a loss in the number of varieties of crops grown. A second trend was the increasing amount of energy expended to store food and ship it to market. In some countries food may travel long distances to reach the market. In theU.S.today, food travels an average of 1,400 miles from the field to the table. The price American pay for the food covers the cost of this long-distance transportation, which in 2004 was approximately only one dollar per mile (1.6 km).

Assuming that you are an American (not all of us are in this class), you live in New York City (2009 population estimate 8,363,710), and that the average American eats 1 kg (2 pounds) of food per day, calculate the food transportation costs for each category in the table below (U.S. 2009 population estimates 307,006,550).

Consumer Daily Cost Annual cost
You $1.40 $511
Your class 28 10220
Your town (New York) 11.709 4273.85
United States 429.809 156880.34

Questions

1.      What specific challenges to environmental sustainability are imposed by a food production and distribution system that relies on long-range transportation to bring food to market?

2.      A study by Pirog and Benjamin (2003) noted that locally produced food in the U.S. traveled only 80 kilometers (appx 50miles) or so to the market, thus saving 96% of the transportation costs. Locally grown foods may be fresher and cause less environmental impact as they are brought to market, but what are the disadvantages to you as a consumer in relying on local food production? Do you think the advantages outweigh those disadvantages?

3.      What happened to the gasoline prices recently? How would future increases in the price of gas affect your answers to the preceding questions?

 4.      If you are an American, how do you think these figures apply to other countries or your country? Where do you base your assumptions?

Pirog, R., and Benjamin, A. (2003). Checking the food odometer. Comparing food miles for local versus conventional produce sales toIowainstitutions.Ames,IA:LeopoldCenterfor Sustainable Agriculture,IowaStateUniversity.

Answers:

1)      The first question explains the need of transportation of food, from the place where it is produced to the place where people are supposed consuming, for example the case of Carrefour market. In this case, the food selling in Carrefour has been produced on other place so in order to be brought to the market it has to be transported, which means that environment is getting the pollution from the transportation vehicles.

2)      In my opinion, we have more advantages by consuming the food from our close region, locally grown foods. The market saves the money for transportation, the environment is less polluted because of the short distance between production place and the market, and the food is as the question states fresher.

3)      The gasoline prices increasing rapidly nowadays. I think the reason of this happening is because of the lack of fossil fuel, the world is running out of fuel, and the other reason I think is the riots around the world, especially in countries rich with fuel resources such asLibya,Iraq,Saudi Arabia, and some other African countries. In future, I think the world is going to face a lot of problems with this issue because of the reasons I mentioned before. However, the problem can be solved by improving the other natural resources, such as sun energy, that takes a huge step recently, and the usage of electric cars, according to the transportation issue.

4)      Well, If I was an American instead of a citizen if FYROM the situation would be different. People inAmericaare closer of getting some benefits from the government than people from my country. For example, If you  like to start operating some organization that deals to natural environment saving, you will not survive, because the government at first will not get your porpose for real and second you will not survive because of the financial situation within the country’s economy. People are more interested of surviving the current day, instead of getting involved in some organizations that deals with sun energy or saving the nature. In the other side, people In America are well situated economically so they are able of doing things like these.

Cite  reference:

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://assets.knowledge.allianz.com/img/transport_truck_melons_q_17752.jpg&imgrefurl=http://knowledge.allianz.com/health/healthy_living/%3F598/food-miles-is-local-food-really-greener&usg=__79Io1GgY4MR00HAHBQcl1dyrtgw=&h=420&w=654&sz=60&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=3H4Cg_fFaWhBUM:&tbnh=121&tbnw=161&ei=26m-TairCsfLswbPxeCWBg&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dtransportation%2Bof%2Bfood%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1920%26bih%3D979%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=487&vpy=411&dur=3600&hovh=180&hovw=280&tx=125&ty=112&page=1&ndsp=64&ved=1t:429,r:23,s:0

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ecological+footprint

Possible questions for final exam from chapter 1,2,3,4 and 6.

The purpose of this assignment is to be well prepared for the coming final exam because we are already covered the possible questions and answers of the material. This assignment will help us better understanding the material.

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Environmental Science

The chapter 1 consist the meaning of the ecosystem services to our lives as well as the natural resources.  This chapter is also concentrated on the understanding of the scientific method and importance of the science to our lives as well.

  1. What is Environmental science?
    1. Study of how the natural world work, how our environment affects us, and how we affect our environment.
    2. Study of relationship between organisms and the environment.
    3. Organism that live in an area and the physical environment with which those organism interact.
    4. Material that an organism must acquire from the environment to live.
  2. When did the second industrial revolution begin?
    1. Mid 1700
    2. 1800
    3. 1900
    4. 2000
  3. Natural resources that are replenished over short period are known as:
    1. Renewable natural resources.
    2. Epiphytes.
    3. Ecotones.
    4. Adaptation
  4. What is environmentalism?
    1. Social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world and by extension, people from undesirable changes brought about human action.
    2. Simultaneously change of geographic distributions and undergo the evolutionary process which increases their ability to live in the new climate regime.
    3. A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem   that can be tested by further investigation.
    4. Changes in vegetation across entire continent.
  5. What are the two types that environmental science covered?
    1. Natural & Social
    2. Evolution & pollution
    3. Both a and b
    4. None of them
  6. The scientific method is technique for testing ideas with observation?
    1. True
    2. False
  7. Experiment in which the researches actively chooses and manipulates the in           depended variable is known as Natural experiment.
    1. True
    2. False
  8. Explain the Ecosystem services?

9.      Set Up the scientific method (include all parts)?

10.     Environmental science that                                   Environmental studies

focus predominantly on the natural

science whereas programs that incorporate

the social science extensively often use the term:

One that borrows techniques                                Interdisciplinary

from multiple disciplines

And brings their research results

together into a broad

Synthesis is called:                                                           

Social movement dedicated to protecting                        Environmentalism

the natural world and by extension,

people from undesirable changes

brought about human action

Technique for testing ideas                                   Scientific method

With observations is called:

Study of how the natural                                                 Environmental science

world work, how our environment

affects us, and how we

affect our environment.

Chapter 2 – Matter, Energy and Geology

The second Chapter is based on the real world situations and how we can influence on by following the science. This chapter also refers to forms of ENERGY that can be found above and below the world’s surface and their structure.

11.      What is the geothermal energy?

  1. Thermal energy from below Earth’s surface
  2. Transition from one type of ecosystem to another.
  3. Material that an organism must acquire from the environment to live.
  4. None of the above

12.      Atoms are:

  1. The smallest units that maintain the chemical properties of the element.
  2. Epiphytes
  3. Flowers that can be found in the environment

d.   Acid elements from the soil

13.      What elements contain geothermal heated water that rises up as steam?

a.   Hydrogen

b.   Oxygen

c.   A & B

d.   Calcium

14.       Fundamental type of matter, a chemical substance with a given set of properties, which can’t be broken into substances, is called:

a.   Element

b.   Biodiversity

c.   Biosphere

d.   None of them

15.       What is the chemical formula for water?

a.  H2O

b.  CO2

c. CH4

d.  O3

16.       The major forms of energy that scientist commonly distinguish are kinetic and geothermal energy

a.   True

b.   False

17.       Energy is capacity to change the position, physical composition, or temperature of matter.

a.   True

b.   False

18.       Classify the two major forms of energy.

19.       Describe the sedimentary rock?

20.      When a type of rock is subjected to                     Metamorphic rock

Great heat or pressure, it may alter it’s

Form becoming

Fundamental type of matter, a chemical               Element

substance with a given set of properties,

which can’t be broken into substances,

is called:

Rock that forms when magma or lava cools         Igneous rock

Is called

Any natturaly occurring solid element                  Mineral

Or inorganic compound with a crystal

Structure is called

If magma is released through the lithosphere       Lava

It may flow or spatter across Earth surface

Is called

Chapter 3 – Chapter 3: Evolution, Biodiversity and Population Ecology

Chapter 3 deals with the evolution of the biodiversity and also refers to extinction of particular species. On the other hand this chapter gives us knowledge about the organizations that deals with the population ecology, population growth and other important issues of the environmental science.

21.      A process by which populations change over time is:

a.    Evolution

b.    Population

c.    Community

d.    None of them

22.      What type of classification includes the organisms that live in an area and the                                                                                                                                                                               physical environment with which those organisms interact are called:

a.   Ecosystem

b.   Epiphytes

c.   Ecotones

d.   Adaptation

23.       What is natural selection?

a.   Process by which inherited characteristic that enhance survival and reproduction are passed on more frequently to future generations than those that do not, thus altering the genetic makeup of population through time.

b.   The long term geographic isolation of populations that can lead to allopathic speciation can occur in various ways.

c.   Each population will independently accumulate its own set of mutations.

d.   None of them.

24.       The cumulative body of fossils worldwide is now as:

a.   Fossil record

b.   Desert

c.   Savanna

d.   None of them

25.       What is ecology?

a.  Study of relationship between organisms and the environment.

b.  A process by which populations change over time.

c.  Organism that live in an area and the physical environment with which                           those organism interact.

d.  Material that an organism must acquire from the environment to live.

26.        Explain ecosystem theory?

27.        Set up the levels of ecological organization?

28.         Communities are made up of multiple interacting species that live in the      same area

a. True

b. False

29.         Ecosystems focus on patterns of species diversity and on incarnations   among spices, from one to one interaction to complex interrelationship involving entire community.

a. True

b. False

30.        The ecology that focus                                          Community ecology

of species diversity and on incarnations

among spices, from one to one interaction

to complex interrelationship involving entire community

Is called:

Encompass communities and the abiotic              Ecosystem

Material and forces with which their member

Interact is called:

The reveals patterns, such as the flow                  Ecosystem ecology

Of energy and nutrients, by studying

Living and nonliving components of system in conjunction

Is called:

Process which population change over time         Evolution

Is called:

The cumulative body of fossils                             Fossils record

Worldwide is now as

Chapter 4 – Species Interactions and Community Ecology

Chapter 4 deals with the energy flow and potential collision on a society by some species.

31.           Which biome lies between 10 degrees latitude north and south of the equator?

a.   Desert.

b.   Tropical rain forest.

c.   Savanna.

d.   Mediterranean woodland.

32.          In which biome you can find the permafrost?

a.    Tundra.

b.    Rain.

c.    Boreal Forest.

d.    Mediterranean climate.

33.         What are the things by which one can distinguish the biomes?

a.    Flowers.

b.    Rain and sun.

c.    Plants and climate.

d.    Pans and soil.

34.          In Which biomes lies Greece?

a.    Desert.

b.    Temperate grassland.

c.    Savanna.

d.    Mediterranean Woodland.

35.         Process by which individuals of one spices hunt, capture, kill, and consume individuals of other spices is called:

a.    Predation.

b.    Parasitism.

c.    Herbivory.

d.    Pollination.

36.         Illustrate the climate in the Boreal Forest biome.

37.        Explain the coevolution process?

38.         Relationship In which one organism is harmed             Amensalism

And the other is unaffected is called

Soil at or below the freezing                                          Permafrost

point of water for two or more years

Hot summer and cool winter                                         Chaparral

Dry 6-7 months, abundant                                             Tropical dry forest

rainfall 5-6 months

Warm and wet year-round                                             Tropical Rain Forest

39.           Parasitism is a relationship in which one organism, depends on another, for                                                                                                                   nourishment or some other benefit while simultaneously doing the host harm

a.            True

b. False

40.          Savanna is the biome that covers the geographic area painted in yellow.

a. True

b. False

Chapter 6- Environmental Ethics and Economics: Values and Choices

Chapter 6 explains the tight connection between the economies and ecosystem services. The theories of the economic growth are also part of this chapter and explain their impact on the environment.

41.             Use the picture below to explain the ethical perspectives of people.

42.              Explain the graph below

43.             Environmental ethics is the application of ethical standards to relationships between people and nonhuman entities.

a. True

b. False

44.            Ecolabeling is the method that serves to inform environmentalists whether the making of one particular product is harming the environment.

a. True

b. False

45.            The argument that the patriarchal                          Ecofeminism

structure of society is a root cause of both

social and environmental problems.

Earth’s ecological systems purify                         Ecosystem services

air and water, form soil, cycle nutrients,

regulate climate

The amount of a product offered                                    Supply

for sale at a given price

The amount of a product people                          Demand

will buy at a given price

Cost or benefits that affect people                     Externalities

other than the buyer or seller

46.            The discipline that applies both principles of ecology and system science to the analysis of economic systems

a.    Ecological economics

b.    Environmental economics

c.    Steady-State economies

d.    All of the above

47.           Values not usually included in the price of a good or service

a.    Nonmarket values

b.    Environmental economics

c.    Contingent valuation

d.    None of the above

48.           When does market failure occurs

a.    When we don’t take into account the environmental principles

b.    By not buying ecolabeled products

c.    When costs equal profit

d.    None of the above

49.           The value that teach us about ourselves in the world is called

a.    Educational value

b.    Use value

c.    Cultural value

d.    Option value

50.       GDP is

a.    The total monetary value of final goods and services produced each year

b.    Governmental policy

c.    Value of unfinished goods

d.    How many goods has one country exported for a year

Conclusion

This assignment is really challenging for the students as a whole. We are all supposed to cover all the material from the particular chapters however determine the most important questions and their answers. The assignment will help us better understand the material and be aware of the environmental problems and solutions by using the purposes of the Ecological advances. In our opinion we maintain the obligations to our environment as citizens of planet Earth.

Group partner http://eco110dejan.wordpress.com/

Assignment 2

Eastern Island vs Tikopia

 

Easter islands get the name from the first European visitor. Easter islands are located in Pacific Ocean. This islands is characterizes for monumental statues, the large stone statue is called moai, and this statues are created by Rapanuie people. This statue made this island to be famous and today is most visited place in world. Easter islands are small with population about 2000 people. This island is 2000 miles from the near population center and is one of the most isolated places on planet. Before people to start using trees for there needs like building boats for catching fish and using trees for fire this islands was full with trees. I should mention also that now Eastern Island has limited natural resources and it has a few trees. Natural resources that can be found today on Eastern Islands are: iron, nitrates, some metals and molybdenum. Also in this Island they have agricultural industry and they are producing potato, bananas, sugar, onion melons and other products.

When we should compare Eastern Island with Tikopia we can see that Tikopia has flourish environment last 3000 years. In Eastern Island and some other Island we do not have the same environment like Tikopia because the expertise proves that there is a lot of soil replacement. Those are the environmental factors but also there are some cultural factors. One of the habits that citizens of Tikopia were limiting the slash and burning cultivation and using intensive agricultures garden plots. Also other thing is that people that where living in Eastern Island doesn’t care about trees. They where using trees for fire, and to build boats to be able to go in see and catch up fish. They didn’t care about there natural resources particularly for trees. From these two islands we can conclude that people that where living in Eastern Island didn’t take much care about there natural resources and people who live In Tikopia take care about there natural resources.

Picture 1

http://web.mst.edu/~rogersda/military_service/midway.htm

Picture 2

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_GPvNiTV6SWg/SDAODmzqS0I/AAAAAAAAA1E/Tow4afpk4xQ/s400/080518-Archidose-tikopia7b.jpg&imgrefurl=http://islasterritorio.blogspot.com/2008_05_01_archive.html&usg=__HhGf7DnAv3DiIFrgRXRxQmYVIZY=&h=250&w=400&sz=27&hl=en&start=66&sig2=RuVQe5HmOXoNNBE9cGlU-w&zoom=1&tbnid=kP1JWSQJlERo6M:&tbnh=98&tbnw=157&ei=ADJkTYG2D5SC4Qaf66ybCg&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtikopia%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1920%26bih%3D936%26tbs%3Disch:10,1000&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=105&vpy=579&dur=1&hovh=177&hovw=284&tx=151&ty=80&oei=8jFkTfjXGsmCswaEyPS5CA&page=2&ndsp=75&ved=1t:429,r:24,s:66&biw=1920&bih=936

Picture 3

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.archidose.org/Blog/tikopia7.jpg&imgrefurl=http://archidose.blogspot.com/2006/05/tikopia-part-2.html&usg=__DPVG_NnpQ0x1oFbBVniLD86vVjQ=&h=250&w=400&sz=49&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=H42IVITGfGVueM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=155&ei=w_ZjTabAK4_ysgb3kvCTDA&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtikopia%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1920%26bih%3D936%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=699&vpy=261&dur=258&hovh=123&hovw=196&tx=190&ty=88&oei=w_ZjTabAK4_ysgb3kvCTDA&page=1&ndsp=67&ved=1t:429,r:15,s:0

Assignment 1

About me

Hi

My name is eco110rope and I am studying at the American college of Thessaloniki and my major is Management. I am coming from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, one town called Stip and this is my fifth and hopefully last year in this college.

The purpose of my blog is to get in touch with other students, read their blogs see how they thing, and also they can read my blog and see how I am thinking.

Like I mention before I am living in Stip. In Stip we have two rivers one is Bregalnica which is the second big river in FYROM and the second river is Otinja. Otinja is the rivers that divided the town in two parts. Also I should mention that we have very hot summer and when it come winter is so could and we have a lot of snow.

Stip is developed city, and it is now for building industry and textile industry. Those two industries don’t polluting our environment. But i should mention that in the city where i live we have one factory for oil that pollutes the river Bregalnica. I mention before that Bregalnica goes from Stip and this part from the river is so polluted.